Large-scale skin, soft tissue and bone defects require special surgical procedures to achieve tension-free wound closure and effectively restore the damaged area. Flap surgery differentiates between two types of flaps. First, a pedicled flap. The flap remains attached at one end to the original anchoring point. It is then repositioned and stitched over the damaged area. Second, a free flap. The flap, and the blood vessels supplying it, are completely detached from the body and reattached at the new site. This technique involves microsurgical procedures, operating microscopes, very fine instruments and suture material (thinner than a human hair).
The basic principle of plastic surgery is to restore like with like.